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Fantastic country in the Caucasus includes 9 types of climates zones among the existing 11 ones on the planet. There are sub-tropical forests and high alpine meadows, permafrost, snow-capped peaks and glaciers and Shakhdag Murovdag. It’s possible in one day transit from one season to another, traveling through the lush forests in Ismayilli and Kelbajar steppes of Mugan and Shirvan and the main sea breeze caresses the Caspian Sea. Picturesque mountain ranges looks like the great masterpieces of famous watercolor.
Historical monuments of Azerbaijan generously preserved since the stone age to the present day. According to Herodotus, there were ancient monuments at the land of Azerbaijan already in his époque (the 5th century B.C.). Amazing rock paintings in Gobustan, Nakhchivan, Absheron – living testimony of history. Before the conquest of Azerbaijan by Arab Caliphate in the VII century, the country preached Christianity.
The Caliphate established Islam. The new traditions were created. But Azerbaijan is considered as mostly tolerant state in relation to many other religious groups.
Widely known species of Azerbaijani is carpet weaving arts. It has spread in Shirvan, Ganja, Karabakh etc. According to experts, carpets, considered as Persian, in fact, are often Azerbaijan origin.
On the land of Azerbaijan yet in the first century BC was created ancient monument of Zoroastrianism – "Avesta", the medieval epic "Dede Korkut" and "Kerogly." Hence it became known Nizami, Khagani, Mehseti, Fizuli, the creator of the observatory Nasreddin Tusi, miniaturist Behzad. Azerbaijanian Miniatures occupy a prominent place in world’s history of painting. Palaces, mausoleums, towers and fortresses are uncountable! Renowned architect Ajami created a masterpiece of Momina Khatun Mausoleum.
The old part of the city, "Inner city" in Baku, the symbol of Baku-Maiden Tower Gyz Galast (VII-XII c., Architect Masud ibn Dawud), the minaret Synyk Kala (XI c.), 7 theaters, 30 museums, the Museum-Reserve "The Palace of Shirvan Shahs» (XV c.) There are all pearls of Azerbaijani culture.
As the special spirit of the country are considered Nakhichevan and Kabbalah, almost the oldest cities in the Caucasus.
Diving enthusiasts will find plenty of Caspiaattraction n: mysteries of the undersea world and the ancient sunken ships. There are numerous endemic species: such as Eldar pine, Caspian lotus, silk tree.
Hyrcanian reserve is miraculously preserved forest Tertiary period, which is not affected by global glaciations. The largest population of gazelles on the planet is in Shirvan.
Among the monuments of antiquity the special place is occupied by Nakhichevan Momina Khatun Mausoleum or "Dome Atabey." In the XIX century there was also the Juma mosque, which even surpassed the mausoleum at its height. However, the mosque does not come down to our days. Decahedral mausoleum is, in fact, a real medieval skyscraper (formerly amounted to 34 m).
Kufi inscription on the walls of the mausoleum, reports a huge text, survived up to know. Decahedron’s sides framed text of the Koran. Four spherical medallions filled with ornaments. Burial Momina Khatun is located under the building. Mausoleum decorations are gorgeous in the royal way.
Earlier Gabala was part of the Shirvan Shahs and Sheki khanate caliphate. The was the history of generous periods of prosperity and tragic events. On the one hand the devastating attacks of the Persians, Khazars and Arabs, and as a positive side the development of the city which became the center of trade and crafts.
Local craftsmen produced copper household items and tools, clothes and silk scarves, engaged in farming and cattle breeding. Numerous merchants brought the goods for sale in distant lands, along the way overcoming miles and robbers. Gabala is “unread book” of Caucasian Albania rich past. In our time in Gabale is a developed tourist infrastructure, attracting a large number of visitors. Gabala Music Festival is organized under the patronage of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation.
. Country’s aAttractions are Gobustan and mud volcanoes.
Gobustan rock paintings are included in the world cultural heritage by UNESCO. The reserve is about 6,000 drawings since the Mesolithic. Petroglyphs carved and scratched on the rocks. Pictures represent hunting scenes, rituals, various animals, boats and symbolic signs. Gobustan boat with a unique curved bottom, made from cane and by the words of the Norwegian explorer and traveler Tour Heyrdal these boats have no analogues in the world.
Azerbaijan is the first famous with mud volcanoes, which is popularly known as "Yanardag" (Burning Mountain).
Worshipers Temple Ateshgyah represents Azerbaijanian exotics since Zoroastrianism. Temple is 30-kmocated from the capital, near the village of Surahany. The unique natural phenomenon was a burning natural gas output. The temple was built in the XVII-XVIII centuries.
Approximately 170 years ago, due to the earth’s crust movement, the output of natural gas has stopped. Fire-worshipers considered it like the punishment of the gods and left the Ateshgyah. The temple is open for tourists, but have used artificial lights.
The most mysterious capital’s monuments is considered to be "Gyz Galasy" or the Maiden’s Tower. Built on a rock ledge, crashing into the Caspian Sea and built of limestone, the tower narrows towards its upper part. The wall thickness at the base is up to 5-m, and in the upper tiers 4 29.5 m height. Diameter is 16.5 meter. "Maiden Tower" consists of 8 storey, which are covered by a cupola with round holes. Back spiral staircase. The upper terrace strikes with beautiful view of the Baku’s Bayf. Inside the tower is a well with depth of 21 meters and under the hypothesis of scientists bottom storey of the tower is much older than the upper one. Tower’s exact purpose is not defined completely. For defensive purposes tower is not suitable because of the small space. Probably, the tower was intended as a Zoroastrian fire temple. And after the XII century fortress was Shirvanshakhs residence and served as lighthouse.
As to biblical legend near the "Maiden Tower" has been crucified and killed martyred apostle St. Bartholomew, who came to preach Christianity in Albania. Church of St. Myrrh-bearers was built in 20th century by Russia as well as donations of Baku merchant Haji Zeinalabdin Tagiyev. In the Temple are kept holy relics of Apostle Bartholomew – the patron saint of St. Baku and icons of St. Maria – "Thvinskaya" and "Caspian". The so-called Baku acropolis "Inner city" is part of the old city. Inner city is the oldest residential area of the capital, contributed to the UNESCO World Heritage Site.Half ruined walls include: Palace Shirvanshakhs the tomb and mosque, the Maiden Tower, minarets, caravanserais, baths and other monuments. Narrow streets, alleys and dead ends store grandeur of past times.
Azerbaijan is waiting for you to occupy a special place in your heart and may be to reveal its secrets to you!